Many researchers studied the implementation of Total quality management in manufacturing sector (Sohal and Terziovski (2000), Lee Y. (2004), Bayazit and Karpak (2007), Sabet et al. (2016)). Specifically, Sohal and Terziovski (2000) conducted a questionnaire on a sample of 365 manufacturing companies in Australia; results suggest that TQM is largely implemented in manufacturing companies. Based on the results of the survey, critical success factors are managers’ positive attitude towards quality, leadership education and training, continuous improvement based on customer and supplier feedback, and a clear reward system.
Furthermore, Lee Y. (2004) conducted a study on 112 manufacturing companies in China; results suggest that small manufacturing companies encounter the following obstacles in implementing TQM: lack of bargaining power with supplier and lack of resources. Also, Bayazit and Karpak (2007) lead a research on 250 manufacturing companies in Turkey, and they found that 59.2% of companies are ready to implement TQM. The study also assess key factors for a successful implementation of TQM in manufacturing companies in Turkey (workers support, dynamic structure of Turkey, family Business). Moreover, Sabet et al. (2016) conducted a case study research on JCB a heavy-duty machinery manufacturer headquartered in the United Kingdom. Their findings reveals that implementing TQM in heavy-duty machinery is successful and that TQM is a foundation to implement Six Sigma.
In Manufacturing industry there are very less contact with customers such in heavy industry power plant, mining, power plant, cement industry, Voss et al. (1985). In fact, manufacturing activities require a transformation from a stage to another (change in the form, utility of the resources, etc.). The impact of TQM on manufacturing activities has been discussed in different studies. These studies mostly discussed the implementation of TQM in the manufacturing sector and its practices, (Gupta et al. (2005), Sureshchander et al. (2002), Saravanan and Rao (2007), Samat et al. (2006), Shieh and Wu (2002)). TQM practices in manufacturing sectors include: Top-management commitment, Customer focus and satisfaction, Continuous improvement and innovation, Human resource management, Training and education, Employee involvement, Benchmarking, Quality culture/work culture, Supplier management.